Structure[ edit ] Cross-section of bone Bone is not uniformly solid, but includes a tough matrix. Its matrix is mostly made up of a composite material incorporating the inorganic mineral calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxylapatite this is the bone mineral that gives bones their rigidity and collagen , an elastic protein which improves fracture resistance. When these cells become entrapped from osteoblasts they become osteocytes. It forms the hard exterior cortex of bones. It consists of multiple microscopic columns, each called an osteon. Each column is multiple layers of osteoblasts and osteocytes around a central canal called the haversian canal. Volkmann’s canals at right angles connect the osteons together. The columns are metabolically active, and as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. Cortical bone is covered by a periosteum on its outer surface, and an endosteum on its inner surface.
World’s Best Free Casual Dating
These formations may have resulted from carcass burial in an anoxic environment with minimal bacteria, thus slowing decomposition. Stromatolites Lower Proterozoic Stromatolites from Bolivia , South America Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms , especially cyanobacteria. While older, Archean fossil remains are presumed to be colonies of cyanobacteria , younger that is, Proterozoic fossils may be primordial forms of the eukaryote chlorophytes that is, green algae.
One genus of stromatolite very common in the geologic record is Collenia.
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At the same time, prehistoric art took a massive leap forward, as exemplified by the cave painting of western Europe, that reached its apogee on the walls and ceilings of Lascaux Cave France and Altamira Cave Spain , both of which contain some of the greatest examples of Franco-Cantabrian cave art , from the Solutrean-Magdalenian era, dating to between 17, and 15, BCE.
See also the magnificent bison paintings at Font de Gaume Cave in the Perigord. Discovered in , close to the village of Montignac, in the Dordogne region of southwestern France, Lascaux is especially famous for its painting , which includes a rare example of a human figure; the largest single image ever found in a prehistoric cave the Great Black Bull ; and a quantity of mysterious abstract signs, which have yet to be deciphered.
In total, Lascaux’s galleries and passageways – extending about metres in length – contain some 2, images, about of which are animals, and the remainder geometric symbols of varying shapes. The sheer number of images, their size and exceptional realism, as well as their spectacular colours, is why Lascaux like Altamira is sometimes referred to as “The Sistine Chapel of Prehistory”.
Like the Chauvet Cave paintings , Lascaux’s cave art was protected by a landslide which sealed off access to the cave around 13, BCE. Not long after its opening in , Pablo Picasso paid a visit and was amazed at the quality of the cave’s rock art , saying that man had learned nothing new since then. In , due to continuing environmental problems inside the cave, Lascaux was closed to the public.
In , an exact replica of the Great Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery – created under Monique Peytral and known as “Lascaux II” – was opened a few hundred metres from the original cave, and it is this replica that visitors see today. In addition, a full range of Lascaux’s parietal art can be viewed at the Centre of Prehistoric Art, located close by at Le Thot. Curiously, what is now France’s oldest known prehistoric cave art – the Abri Castanet Engravings c.
To understand how Lascaux’s cave painting fits into the evolution of Stone Age culture, see: Alternatively, to compare Lascaux with the earliest caves, see:
Broth is Beautiful
The bearded vulture, or lammergeier, is one intense bird. It lives on a steady diet of bones and dyes its feathers blood red, giving it the reputation of one of the most metal birds in the animal kingdom. Lammergeier means “lamb-vulture” in German As a result of its appearance and diet, the vulture has a nasty reputation of carrying away lambs, calves, and even children. This is, of course, disputable; the birds are not known to be hostile toward living humans.
This is what archaeologists use to determine the age of human-made artifacts. But carbon dating won’t work on dinosaur bones. The half-life of carbon is only 5, years, so carbon dating is only effective on samples that are less than 50, years old. Dinosaur bones, on the other hand, are millions of years old — some fossils are billions of years old. To determine the ages of these specimens, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life.
Some of the isotopes used for this purpose are uranium , uranium and potassium , each of which has a half-life of more than a million years. Unfortunately, these elements don’t exist in dinosaur fossils themselves. Each of them typically exists in igneous rock, or rock made from cooled magma. Fossils, however, form in sedimentary rock — sediment quickly covers a dinosaur’s body, and the sediment and the bones gradually turn into rock.
But this sediment doesn’t typically include the necessary isotopes in measurable amounts. Fossils can’t form in the igneous rock that usually does contain the isotopes. The extreme temperatures of the magma would just destroy the bones. Keep Reading Below So to determine the age of sedimentary rock layers, researchers first have to find neighboring layers of Earth that include igneous rock, such as volcanic ash. These layers are like bookends — they give a beginning and an end to the period of time when the sedimentary rock formed.
Pointed Weapons of Wood, Bone, and Ivory: The familiar Clovis “fluted points” and other lithic points equally old or even older than Clovis, may have evolved later in time due to increasing lithic technology or a need or stimulus related to changing killing methods or the type of animals being slaughtered. Bone spear points alone have been found with some kill-site discoveries, while in others possibly later in time both bone and lithic spearpoints were used in making the kill.
Bone and ivory weapon tips of several recurring types from many areas of Europe, Asia, and North America are studied in this paper and interpretative suggestions are made as to their use, morphology, and purpose.
Bone diagenesis and radiocarbon dating of fish bone at the Shag River Mouth site, New Zealand. Journal of Archaeological Science, Petchey, F,
It because you not use enough of it! Ogryns possess many traits prized by the Imperium; they are brutally strong and completely loyal, although extremely limited intellectually, which restricts their battlefield role to simple and direct assaults. They hail from a series of cold and barren planets across the galaxy that possess high gravity, such as Anark Zeta , which is why they appear larger, heavier and bulkier compared to baseline humans.
Ogryns compensate for their stupidity with overwhelming physicality — the brutish creatures stand around ten Terran feet tall and can shrug off wounds that would kill an Imperial Guardsman several times over. These qualities mean that Ogryns make exceptional shock troops, and are often deployed on the front lines of battle by Imperial commanders. It is fair to say that Ogryns do have their limitations.
Their equipment must be simple and exceptionally rugged, as anything within arm’s reach is likely to see brief and violent service as an improvised club.
Can the scan show the gender of my baby? What is actually done? Scans are usually performed by a doctors, midwives or radiographers who are specially trained in ultrasound, and are known as sonographers. The whole pregnancy will be assessed. The amount of liquor amniotic fluid , the position and appearance of the placenta and a detailed scan of the baby itself.
Radiocarbon dating results on bones need not be subjected to an age offset but bone samples have time-width. Literature suggests that a bone does not cease to assimilate carbon from the biosphere until death; there is a turnover time of about 30 years for human bone and a shorter period for animal bone.
The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Furthermore, when you consider that many archaeological sites will contain numerous types of artifacts that permit the use of multiple dating methodologies, a modern archaeologist can often employ cross-dating methodologies which can allow for extremely accurate dating as far back as 10, years in some regions.
Natural Dating Techniques A modern archaeologist has almost half a dozen natural dating techniques that she can apply in the field that she can use to quickly determine an approximate date range, which, in the cases of varve analysis and dendrochronology, can often be used to decrease the date range estimate to a matter of just a few years.
One of the oldest natural dating techniques is geochronology, which is based on the principle of superposition — an object, or layer, on top must have been placed there at a later point in time. Once a geologist has determined the absolute age of a geological formation, the archaeologist can assign an indirect date to objects found in the formation.
In archaeology, geochronology lays the foundations for the dating technique better known as stratigraphy that assesses the age of archaeological materials by their association with geological deposits or formations.
Bone-Box No Proof of Jesus
Yes, two pound turkeys will fit in the The distance between the top and bottom grates is 7. You may want to take a ruler or measuring tape to the grocery store You may want to place a foil pan under the turkey on the top grate to keep the drippings from fouling up the pretty skin on the turkey below Photo 6.
It doesn’t take a lot more time to cook two turkeys than just one, perhaps 30 minutes at most. When cooking a turkey on the bottom grate, make sure it fits within the circumference of the water pan to prevent burning the meat.
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This article was published in a three-part series in the magazine Secular Nation, at the suggestion of Dr. Robert Price, who called the series “fine articles. In the week of October 21, , headlines around the world screamed that evidence of Jesus Christ had been found in the form of an ossuary, or bone-box, supposedly once containing the bones of “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus,” as was inscribed on the box in Aramaic. The original scholar who reported this spectacular find, the Sorbonne’s biblical expert Andre Lemaire, “born a Catholic,” concluded it was “very probable” that the inscription referred to Jesus of Nazareth, i.
The ossuary, therefore, would supposedly be that of the biblical “James the Just,” who is referred to as Jesus’s “brother” at Matthew Naturally, Christian apologists and fanatics rubbed their hands together, and gleefully and smugly bombarded nonbelievers with the news via email. But was there really some wondrous “new proof” of Jesus that would set the record straight once and for all, or was it all another bit of faithful flotsam?
In actuality, it seems to be time once again for the world’s religious handlers to pull out another holy relic in order to bolster up the flagging faith. Such shenanigans have been behind the incessant news releases regarding the Shroud of Turin a more bogus relic there never was , the recent “depiction” of what Jesus would have looked like a Neanderthal , and the never-ending slew of books concerning the “real Jesus,” who invariably resembles the authors of said books.
To those who have been around a while and have developed a jaundiced eye, this latest “find” is yet more of the same “evidence.